Aug 28, 2020
category: Literature


The aim of the current literature search is to find empirical literature sources using the most appropriate online databases like EBSCOhost database that provides a great number of the scholarly resources. Among a great variety of disciplines, nursing and medicine are widely presented in the database and therefore, the full text of the peer-reviewed empirical researches can be easily found there. The issue that will be explored is the usage of the incontinence pads versus briefs among patients with chronic incontinence. The research question is whether the use of incontinence pads compared to briefs decrease the incidence of skin breakdown among such patients. In order to provide the better understanding of such issue, it is necessary to refer to such issues as the factors that predetermine the problems with skin, the major characteristics of the incontinence pads and briefs as well as the advantages of both for different patients. In order to answer the mentioned questions, the related keywords and phrases were identified. Based on such keywords as incontinence pads, incontinence briefs and chronic inconsistency, dermatitis, skin breakdown, the appropriate article was found. The article by Getliffe, Fader, Cottenden, Jamieson, and Green (2007) emphasize the crucial value of the proper choice of absorbent pads for patients’ life quality and general well-being. While the major demands to the high-quality incontinence appliances are holding urine, containing smell, staying in place, ensuring discreteness, and comfort to skin, the incontinence pads are more suitable for people with chronic incontinence.

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Search Strategies

The literature search was conducted based on the EBSCOhost database resources. The choice of this database was predetermined primarily by the abundance of health sciences-related reliable peer-reviewed sources. Having identified the topic and keywords combinations, dozens of the corresponding articles were found. The search began with using such keywords as ‘incontinence pads or briefs.’ However, it was obviously not the appropriate word choice as too many coincidences with iPads were found, and the number of irrelevant articles was too high and reached 95,174. Another combination of the keywords was ‘incontinence briefs versus incontinence pads.’ As a result, 947 articles were found. However, more specifications were needed to find the answer to the research question. Therefore, the following clarification word combination was added. ‘Incontinence pads versus incontinence briefs, skin breakdown’ was the next combination of the keywords that has provided 1,482 results on the topic. Finally, the combination ‘chronic incontinence, incontinence briefs versus incontinence pads, skin breakdown’ has provided 1,164 results and appeared to be the best to find the appropriate peer reviewed articles. Some delimiters for the literature search were English language and the year of publication that had to be not earlier than 2006 to avoid the outdated information, finding only the full text and finding all the search terms. No limitations regarding the research type or location were provided.

Search Results

After searching the database, plenty of articles referred to incontinence appliances choice. However, it was necessary to narrow the choice. In order to do so, the keywords combinations were changed as mentioned below. Obviously, the last combination ‘chronic incontinence, incontinence briefs versus incontinence pads, skin breakdown’ was the most appropriate to find the articles about the use of incontinence pads compared to briefs decrease the incidence of skin breakdown among chronic incontinence patients. Some of the articles provided the literature review, while others described the primary empirical research. Even though far not all results were directly answering the question, at least five of the chosen articles have provided the evidences and justification related to skin breakdown treatment and advantages of incontinence pads usage.

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Five articles were identified as the most appropriate for the current research. Although not all of them directly discuss the incontinence briefs usage, all of them refer to the peculiarities of inconsistence-related skin breakdown treatment and the essential characteristics of the effective incontinence appliances. Brunner, Droegemueller, Rivers, and Deuser (2012) discuss the important information about perineal protection products for patients with incontinences. This research relies on the empirical studies to prove that acute care is necessary for the skin breakdown prevention. While both spray and wipe approaches are effective, the financial perspective often becomes influential for the initial choice of patients.

Another study presented by Payne (2015) provides the information that is efficient for the study of the incontinence problem and treatment choice. The author discusses the advantages and disadvantages of absorbent incontinence pads in various cases and for different patients. Insert pads, wraparound or diaper-style pads and pull-up pads are identified as the tools that are appropriate and adjustable. The diagnosis, dexterity, carers, mobility, bedbound, ender, personal choice and various other issues can affect the selection of the pad. However, the appropriate absorbency level remains the crucial feature for the consequent skin condition.

Nazarko’s study (2015) focuses on the means to minimize skin damage in case of incontinence. In fact, the volume and frequency of the incontinence are the characteristics that ensure the most appropriate choice of helpful tools. Nazarko (2015) points out disposable pads and reusable pads as good alternatives. The major advantages of these tools are that they absorb and ‘lock’ the urine to keep the skin dry and defended from various breakdowns. As for reusable pads, regular washing, inappropriateness for fecal incontinence and heavy incontinence, makes them less attractive. Moreover, such reusable pads provide the higher risks of the relate skin problems. Although hygiene rules are helpful in many cases, incontinence tools choice is crucial for the problem aggravation or minimization.

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Beeckman, Schoonhoven, Verhaeghe, Heyneman, and Defloor (2009) provide the essential background information regarding incontinence-associated dermatitis as a serious skin problem. Skin protection and timely skin cleansing are defined as the crucial factor for the proper skin condition. Therefore, the value of the work is its emphasis on the proper incontinence tools choice as the important mean to live a high-quality life regardless illness. In fact, the proper choice of incontinence pads or briefs and its timely change can let a person avoid problems with skin. However, the proper choice is strongly dependent on a great number of personal factors. Therefore, one cannot identify only one type of tools that would be the best for all population groups.

The empirical research conducted by Getliffe et al. (2007) is the most relevant for the study of incontinence pads compared to briefs decrease the incidence of skin breakdown. The major value of this study is that it identifies the main essential characteristics of absorbent products that are appropriate to keep the skin of patients clean and dry. Based on the theoretical analysis and face-to-face interview with patients, the scholars have identified that the main important characteristics of incontinence appliances must be ensuring the general comfort, good sleep, and healthy skin. As for the skin health, it is strongly associated with regular cleaning, sufficient moistening, and avoidance of various harmful element like the regular impact of urine or fecal. The interviewed women have reported the higher level of satisfaction with the usage of the incontinence pads. With the better absorption, incontinence pads of different type commonly become more effective than incontinence briefs to meet demands of patients.

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